Bakers work in one of the largest, most dynamic and fastest growing sectors of the food and drink industry. Every day bakers make and sell millions of loaves of bread and baked goods, such as cakes, pies, pastries and biscuits to customers in the UK and around the world. Bakers are passionate about their industry and the products they make and take great pride in their work. There are many varied employment and career opportunities in the bakery industry. Bakers may be employed in a traditional craft bakery or in a large automated processing plant; a specialist retail shop or supermarket. Many bakers opt to set up and manage their own businesses. Whichever environment bakers choose to work in, they will have a set of core knowledge, skills and behaviours. Bakers will be able to make a wide range of breads and baked goods, using a range of traditional craft and mechanical processing methods. They will work safely and hygienically, following recipes and specifications, to ensure the quality and standards of products meet customer requirements. The industry offers many ongoing career development opportunities to suit their own particular interests, whether they aspire to being a manager of the future, a specialist baker, product designer or retail bakery expert.


  • Produce a loaf by hand with no mechanical aids – using only flour, salt, water and yeast.
  • Produce bread and cake products to specification, using both manual baking processes and mechanical processes.
  • Produce a range of pastries to specification, including sweet and savoury.
  • Produce a range of enriched doughs to specification.
  • Finish bakery products to specification.
  • Source, handle and store ingredients and finished goods.
  • Use knives, equipment and machinery.
  • Comply with legislation, regulations and organisational requirements for health and safety, food safety and hygiene.
  • Maintain quality by carrying out product sampling and testing against organisational and customer specifications.
  • Communicate effectively with colleagues, suppliers and customers.
  • Work as part of a team and individually in a commercial baking environment.  Use problem solving skills to find root cause of faults.  Manage own time effectively to meet production schedules


  • The history of bread making: the size and structure of the bakery sector; how and why production methods have evolved.
  • Theories of baking.
  • Basic recipe formulation.
  • The methods and processes used in bakery, both by hand and using equipment, including: weighing, mixing, proving, dividing, shaping, scaling, blocking, baking, cooling and finishing for a range of bakery products.
  • How to use different types of equipment, including mixers and ovens.  How to use knives safely including correct use and application
  • Ingredients used in bakery: how to store, handle and transport the main ingredients used in baking such as flour, yeast, salt, sugar, fats, improvers, water, eggs.
  • Principles of ingredients: including their origins, properties: purposes and uses; grades and quality; and how they interact.
  • Principles of making dough: including changes in physical properties during processing, types of dough for different products.
  • Finished baked products: how to source, store, handle, package, label and transport types of finished baked products.
  • The importance of minimising waste and maximising product yield and profit, including pricing and costing.
  • How to deal with waste products and the importance of recycling to a bakery business.
  • Legislation and regulations in the food industry, including: health and safety, food safety, allergens, hygiene, cleaning, labelling, and environmental.
  • The impact of consumer trends and requirements on the baking industry.
  • How to fry off products and use hotplates.
  • How to use problem solving skills to find root cause of faults.
  • Innovation and New Product Development (NPD) benefit bakery.  How to use and apply quality assurance and monitoring processes.


  • Safe Working: ensures safety of self and others, food safe, addresses safety issues and concerns.
  • Ownership of work: accepts responsibility and is proactive
  • Pride in work: integrity, aims for excellence, punctual and reliable
  • Self-development: seeks learning and development opportunities
  • Integrity and respect: for all colleagues
  • Working in a team: builds good relationships with others
  • Problem solving: identifies and participates in problem solving
  • Responsiveness to change: flexibility to changing environment and demands
  • Company/industry perspective: desire to learn about own company and food industry, acts as an ambassador.
  • Effective Communication: with others, listens effectively, receives feedback.

Baker – Additional Knowledge and Skills for Craft, In Store and Automated Bakery

In addition to the core knowledge, skills and behaviours, bakers will demonstrate specialist additional skills and knowledge from one of the following craft, in store and automated bakery options All apprentices must complete the core plus one of the options

Craft Bakers will be able to:

  • Produce individual dough based bread products.  
  • Produce individual confectionery products.  
  • Hand deposit, pipe and sheet.  
  • Produce and finish cakes by hand.  
  • Understand when and how to use specialised ingredients, including chocolate, fruit, icing, jelly.

In store Bakers will be able to:

  • Provide excellent service to meet requirements of customers in store.  
  • Check, rotate and replenish stock in the bakery area of the store.  
  • Process part-bake goods ready for sale.  
  • Finish a range of products ready for sale.  
  • Understand how and manage stock in an in-store environment.  
  • Understand and use packaging in an instore environment.

Automated Bakers will be able to:

  • Produce a range of bakery goods in an automated bakery.  
  • Understand automated and mechanical processing methods.  
  • Understand batch processing.  
  • Understand mixing methods, including Chorleywood bread process.  
  • Understand the principles of Large Scale production.  
  • Understand Ingredient management in large scale production.  
  • Understand how to use programmable logic controllers (PLCs).  
  • Understand principles of auditing requirements.

Entry Requirements

Apprentices without level 2 English and maths will need to achieve level 1, and take the test for level 2 English and maths prior to undertaking the end-point assessment for this apprenticeship 


Typically 18 to 24 months

Professional Qualification / Recognition

Level 2?.

Originally published on, this information has been re-used under the terms of the Open Government Licence.


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